Thank you for your interest in digital inclusion. This site presents a Methodology for Costing the Impact of Digital Exclusion, developed for the National Audit Office (NAO) by the LSE Public Policy Group and the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) and opens it up for expert deliberation. Please go to the How you can help tab to participate in the deliberation and improve the methodology!

This online consultation was commissioned by the NAO to inform its understanding of the evidence base on the costs and benefits of digitial inclusion activities.  Please do not quote or reference the research without the express permission of the NAO.  The NAO has yet to decide when and how it will publish the results of this exercise.


Recent work by OII has shown that technological forms of exclusion are a reality for significant segments of the population, that different groups experience different types of exclusion, and that for some people they reinforce and deepen existing disadvantages, such as social and economic exclusion.

We were asked by the National Audit Office to develop a methodology for working out the benefits foregone to citizens, government and the economy through digital exclusion - and the costs of overcoming them. This methodology is presented here.

The original project to develop the methodology was jointly led by Professor Patrick Dunleavy and Professor Helen Margetts, the research team included Chris Gilson, Leandro Carrera, Ellen Helsper and Jane Tinkler and the project was jointly administered for the research team by Enterprise LSE and Isis.

In developing this methodology, the team drew on their extensive experience of working together on earlier NAO value for money studies, including Government on the Web (1999), Government on the Web II (2002) and Government on the Internet: Progress in Delivering Information and Services Online (2007); the Oxford Internet Institute’s biannual investigation into Internet use in Britain, the Oxford Internet Survey (OxIS); and research carried out by the Oxford Internet Institute (with the Office of National Statistics and OfCom) for the Department for Communities and Local Government published as Digital Inclusion: An Analysis of Social Disadvantage and the Information Society (2008).